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             Paper-based Biobatteries

Paper-based devices have recently emerged as a simple and low-cost paradigm for fluid manipulation and analytical/clinical testing. Compared to traditional microfluidic technologies, paper has many distinct advantages that make it especially suitable for point-of-care and point-of-use testing in low-resource settings. However, there are significant challenges in developing paper-based devices at a system level that contains an integrated, paper-based power source. The paper-based power source is indispensable to creating an all paper-based system that can work independently and self-sustainably. We are developing a stackable and integrative 3-D paper-based bacteria-powered battery for on-chip paper-based devices. These devices will then be capable of generating electrical power with one drop of bacteria-containing liquid—whatever water-based fluid is readily accessible in the local environment. The developed battery fuses the art of origami and the technology of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and has the potential to shift the paradigm for flexible and stackable paper-based batteries by enabling, through their architecture and design, exceptional electrical characteristics and functionalities.